LANDASAN DAN PRINSIP PENGEMBANGAN KURIKULUM

 

LANDASAN DAN PRINSIP PENGEMBANGAN KURIKULUM

 

Pada dasarnya landasan merupakan fondasi atau sebagai dasar untuk membuat suatu pekerjaan. Setiap pengembangan kurikulum, selain harus berpijak pada sejumlah landasan, juga harus menerapkan atau menggunakan prinsip-prinsip tertentu. Dengan adanya prinsip tersebut, setiap pengembangan kurikulum diikat oleh ketentuan atau hukum sehingga dalam pengembangannya mempunyai arah yang jelas sesuai dengan prinsip yang telah disepakati. Prinsip-prinsip pengembangan kurikulum adalah sebagai berikut:

1.Prinsip Relevansi

Prinsip ini dipecah menjadi 2 yaitu eksternal dan internal. Eksternal : kompetensi lulusan sesuai dengan pengguna lulusan,sedamgkan Internal : kurikulum harus sesuai dan saling berkaitan.Prinsip relevansi berkenaan dengan kesesuaian antara komponen tujuan, isi, strategi, dan evaluasi. Ada dua macam relevansi yang harus dimiliki kurikulum,yaitu relevansi keluar dan relevansi di dalam kurikulum itu sendiri. Relevansi keluar yaitu tujuan, isi dan proses belajar yang tercakup dalam kurkulum hendaknya relevan dengan tuntutan, kebutuhan dan perkembangan masyarakat. Adapun relevansi di dalam yaitu ada kesesuaian antara komponen-komponen kurikulum, yaitu antara tujuan, isi, proses penyampaian dan penilaian. Relevansi ini menunjukkan suatu keterpaduan kurikulum.

2.Prinsip Fleksibilitas

Kesatuan dalam kebijakan dan keberagaman dalam pelaksanaan pelaksanaan,Diversitikasi kurikulum. Prinsip fleksibilitas berkenaan dengan kebebasan/keluwesan yang dimiliki guru dalam mengimplementasikan kurikulum dan adanya alternatif pilihan program pendidikan bagi siswa sesuai dengan minat dan bakatnya.

3.Prinsip Kontinuitas

Maju berkelanjutan (satu sub kompetensi selanjutnya),Mata pelajaran ditata secara prereausite.Prinsip kontinuitas berkenaan dengan adanya kesinambungan materi pelajaran antarberbagai jenis dan jenjang sekolah serta antartingkatan kelas. Perkembangan dan proses belajar berlangsung secara berkesinambungan, tidak terputus-putus atau terhenti-henti.

 

4.Prinsip Praktis dan Efisiensi

Mudah diimplementasikan dan kompatibel.Kurikulum harus mudah dilaksanakan, menggunakan alat-alat sederhana dan biayanya juga murah. Tepat pelaksanaannya dan menghasilkan sesuatu dengan tidak membuang-buang waktu, tenaga, dan biaya.

5.Prinsip  Efektifitas

Pemenuhan kebutuhan siswa,sehingga mampu mengembangkan kapabilitas atau kapasitas intelektual siswa untuk menjadi warga negara yg bertanggung jawab dan mampu berkontribusi pada daya asaing bangsa.Keberhasilan  pelaksanaan kurikulum harus diperhatikan, baik kuantitas maupun kualitas. Keberhasilan kuntitas ditinjau dari komponen-komponen kurikulum, seperti tujuan, isi, proses belajar, dan evaluasi. Sedangkan keberhasilan kualitasnya dilihat dari hasil pelaksanaan kurikulum yang ada.

6.Prinsip khusus

Adapun prinsip khusus yang harus diperhatikan dalam mengembangkan kurikulum, antara lain: prinsip keimanan, nilai dan budi pekerti luhur, penguasaan integrasi nasional, keseimbangan etika, logika, estetika, dan kinetika, kesamaan memperoleh kesempatan, abad pengetahuan dan teknologi informasi, pengembangan keterampilan hidup, berpusat pada anak, serta pendekatan menyeluruh dan kemitraan.

Kurikulum baik pada tahap kurikulum sebagai ide, rencana, pengalaman maupun kurikulum sebagai hasil dalam pengembangannya harus mengacu atau menggunakan landasan yang kuat dan kokoh, agar kurikulum tersebut dapat berfungsi serta berperan sesuai dengan tuntutan pendidikan yang ingin dihasilkan seperti tercantum dalam rumusan tujuan pendidikan nasional yang telah digariskan dalam UU no. 20 tahun 2003.Pada prinsipnya ada empat landasan pokok yang harus dijadikan dasar dalam setiap pengembangan kurikulum, yaitu:

1.Landasan Filosofis, yaitu asumsi-asumsi tentang hakikat realitas, hakikat manusia, hakikat pengetahuan, dan hakikat nilai yang menjadi titik tolak dalam mengembangkan kurikulum. Asumsiasumsi filosofis tersebut berimplikasi pada permusan tujuan pendidikan, pengembangan isi atau materi pendidikan, penentuan strategi, serta pada peranan peserta didik dan peranan pendidik.

2.Landasan psikologis, adalah asumsi-asumsi yang bersumber dari psikologi yang  dijadikan titik tolak dalam mengembangkan kurikulum. Ada dua jenis psikologi yang harus menjadi acuan yaitu psikologi perkembangan dan psikologi belajar. Psikologi perkembangan mempelajari proses dan karaktersitik perkembangan peserta didik sebagai subjek pendidikan, sedangkan psikologi belajar mempelajari tingkah laku peserta didik dalam situasi belajar. Ada tiga jenis teori belajar yang mempunyai pengaru besar dalam pengembangan kurikulum, yaitu teori belajar kognitif, behavioristik, dan humanistic.

 

 

3.Landasan sosial budaya, adalah asumsi-asumsi yang bersumber dari sosiologi dan antrofologi yang dijadikan titik tolak dalam mengembangkan kurikulum. Karakterstik sosial budaya di mana peserta didik hidup  berimplikasi pada  program pendidikan yang akan dikembangkan.

4.Landasan ilmiah dan teknologi, adalah asumsi-asumsi yang bersumber dari hasil-hasil riset atau penelitian dan aplikasi dari ilmu pengetahuan yang menjadi titik  tolak dalam mengembangkan kurikulum. Pengembangan kurikulum membutuhkan sumbangan dari berbagai kajian ilmiah dan teknologi baik yang bersifat hardware maupun software sehingga pendidikan yang dilaksanakan dapat menyesuaikan diri dengan perkembangan ilmu pngetahuan dan teknologi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

#Catatanpribadi:Landasanpengembangankurikulum

https://suwilah.wordpress.com/2014/03/28/landasan-pengembangan-kurikulum-2/

 

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