filsafat dalam desain kurikulum

DESAIN KURIKULUM

Manusia dengan potensi akal yang dimiliki adalah pembeda yang jelas dengan makhluk yang lain di muka bumi ini, kemampuan ini memberikan arah bagi manusia untuk melakukan sesuatu secara sempurna. Perkembangan manusia akan berjalan dengan baik jika dilakukan dengan pendidikan yang terarah (formal), walau bisa mendapat pengetahuan tanpa pendidikan seseorang akan tetap mengalami perkembangan tetapi tidak maksimal pada target yang akan dicapai. Dalam proses belajar dan pembelajaran pada umumnya materi pembelajaran diupayakan berorientasi pada head, heart dan hand, yaitu berkaitan dengan pengetahuan, sikap/nilai dan keterampilan. Namun masih diperlukan faktor kesehatan (healt) sehingga akan dimiliki empat H, yaitu: pertama, Head kedua, Hand, ketiga Heart, keempat Helth.
Dengan kerangka pemikiran tersebut, maka perlu diperhatikan yaitu ketika ide-ide pengembangan kurikulum terlembagakan dalam sebuah dokumen kurikulum yang pada akhirnya harus diimplementasikan, maka guru disini akan menjadi ujung tombak keberhasilan implementasi kurikulum. Oleh karena itu perhatian hendaknya diletakkan pada desain kurikulum dalam proses pembelajaran, adalah satu hal yang perlu ditanggapi secara serius. Dengan demikian desain kurikulum yang akan datang harus mempertimbangkan hal sebagai berikut; pertama adanya kesesuaian antara kurikulum dengan kebutuhan masyarakat dan kondisi alamnya, kedua pengembangan kurikulum disesuaikan dengan kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, ketiga kurikulum harus berisikan nilai-nilai yang dianut oleh masyarakat dan disesuaikan dengan budaya nasional dan budaya daerah masing-masing, keempat kurikulum harus mampu mengantisipasi perubahan sosial dalam masyarakat. Dan yang terakhir, kelima bahwa kurikulum harus memuat nilai-nilai agama yang sesuai dengan peserta didik, sehingga terwujud generasi yang memiliki kapabelitas Iptek dan Imtaq yang paripurna.
Dalam suatu lembaga pendidikan terdapat ruang lingkup kurikulum , namun di ruang lingkup kurikulum tedapat suatu proses pembelajaran. Dalam kurikulum adalah cerminan dari pendidikan berikut gambarnya :

Dalam teori pendidikan mengandung beberapa strukstur pendidikan yang di alami dalam sehari-hari seperti pendidikan teknologi , pendidikan klasik , pendidikan pribadi , pendidikan interaksional. Berikut strukturnya :

Menurut filosofi , teori
Filosofi Teori pendidikan Kurikulum Teori belajar
1. Peresialisme pendidikan klasik Seubjject matter Teori belajar kognitif
2. Proggresifisme Pendiiidikan teknologi Kompetensi behafioristik
3. Proggresifisme Pendidikan personal Humanistik Humanistik
4. Rekontruksionisme Pendidikan intraksional Rekontruksi sosial konstruktifistik

Filsafat dalam kurikulum adalah sebagai berikut :
a. Perenialisme
1. Dasar filsafat : Realisme
2. Tujuan Pembelajaran : Mendidik anak rasional , intelektual
3. Pengetahuan : Pengetahuan permanen
4. Peran guru : Membantu siswa berpikir rasional
5. Metode pembelajaran : Ekspositoris (langkah-langkah sudah ditata dengan jelas)
b. Esensialisme
1. Dasar filsafat : Idealisme dan realisme
2. Tujuan pembelajaran : Anak berkembang intelektualnya dan kompeten
3. Pengetahuan : Keterampilan esensial dan pengetahuan dasar.
4. Peran guru : otorita
5. Metode pembelajaran : Tradisional

c. Progresivisme
1. Progmatisme
2. Anak hidup demokratis
3. Pembimbing
4. Problem solving
d. Rekontruksivisme
1. Progmatisme
2. Rekonstruksi masyarakat
3. Pengetahuan dan keterampilan yang dibutuhkan
4. Agen perubahan
5. Problem solving

Daftar Pustaka
#catatanpribadi-desainkurikulum
https://imanbella.wordpress.com/2012/05/29/makalah-tentang-desain-kurikulum/

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