Teori Belajar

 

Teori Belajar

 

Teori Belajar adalah upaya untuk menggambarkan bagaimana orang dan hewan belajar, sehingga membantu kita memahami proses kompleks interen pembelajaran. Teori belajar tergolong menjadi 4 teori belajar.berikut penjelasannya teori-teori tersebut.

  1. Teori behavioristik

Teori behavioristik adalah sebuah teori yang dicetuskan oleh Gage dan Berliner tentang perubahan tingkah laku sebagai hasil dari pengalaman. Teori ini lalu berkembang menjadi aliran psikologi belajar yang berpengaruh terhadap arah pengembangan teori dan praktik pendidikan dan pembelajaran yang dikenal sebagai aliran behavioristik. Aliran ini menekankan pada terbentuknya perilaku yang tampak sebagai hasil belajar.

Teori behavioristik dengan model hubungan stimulus-responnya, mendudukkan orang yang belajar sebagai individu yang pasif. Respon atau perilaku tertentu dengan menggunakan metode pelatihan atau pembiasaan semata. Munculnya perilaku akan semakin kuat bila diberikan penguatan dan akan menghilang bila dikenai hukuman.

Jadi teori ini masih menggunakan teori lama seperti khalayaknya orang tua kepada anaknya.

 

 

 

  1. Teori konstruktivistik

 

Pembelajaran konstruktivistik adalah pembelajaran yang lebih menekankan pada proses dan kebebasan dalam menggali pengetahuan serta upaya dalam mengkonstruksi pengalaman. Dalam proses belajarnya pun, memberi kesempatan kepada siswa untuk mengemukakan gagasannya dengan bahasa sendiri, untuk berfikir tentang pengalamannya sehingga siswa menjadi lebih kreatif dan imajinatif serta dapat menciptakan lingkungan belajar yang kondusif.

Pengetahuan dalam pengertian konstruktivisme tidak dibatasi pada pengetahuan yang logis dan tinggi. Pengetahuan di sini juga dapat mengacu pada pembentukan gagasan, gambaran, pandangan akan sesuatu atau gejala sederhana. Dalam konstruktivisme, pengalaman dan lingkungan kadang punya arti lain dengan arti sehari-hari. Pengalaman tidak harus selalu pengalaman fisis seseorang seperti melihat, merasakan dengan indranya, tetapi dapat pula pengalaman mental yaitu berinteraksi secara pikiran dengan suatu obyek. Dalam konstruktivisme kita sendiri yang aktif dalam mengembangkan pengetahuan

Dalam proses pembelajaran kontruktivisme Secara konseptual, proses belajar jika dipandang dari pendekatan kognitif, bukan sebagai perolehan informasi yang berlangsung satu arah dari luar ke dalam diri siswa, melainkan sebagai pemberian makna oleh siswa kepada pengalamannya melalui prosesnya asimilasi dan akomodasi yang bermuara pada pemutahkiran struktur kognitifnya. Kegiatan belajar lebih dipandang dari segi prosesnya dari pada segi perolehan pangetahuan dari fakta-fakta yang terlepas-lepas. Pemberian makna terhadap objek dan pengalaman oleh individu tersebut tidak dilakukan secara sendiri-sendiri oleh siswa, melainkan melalui interaksi dalam jaringan sosial, yang unik yang terbentuk baik dalam budaya kelas maupun di luar kelas. Oleh sebab itu pengelolaan siswa dalam memperolah gagasannya, bukan semata-mata pada pengelolaan siswa dan lingkungan belajarnya bahkan pada unjuk kerja atau prestasi belajarnya yang dikaitkan dengan sistem penghargaan.

  1. Teori kognitif

Istilah “Cognitif” berasal dari kata “Cognition” yang padanannya “Knowing”, berarti menge­tahui. Dalam arti luas, cognition (kognisi) ialah perolehan, penataan dan penggunaan penge­tahuan (Neissser, 1976). Dalam perkembangan selanjutnya, istilah kognitif menjadi populer dan menjadi salah satu domain atau wilayah atau ranah psikologis manusia yang meliputi setiap peri­laku mental yang berkaitan dengan pemaham­an, pertimbangan, pengolahan infor­masi, pe­mecahan masalah, kesenjangan dan keyakinan. Ranah kejiwaan yang berpusat di otak ini juga berhubungan dengan konasi (ke­hendak) dan afeksi (perasaan) yang bertalian dengan ranah rasa (Chaplin, 1972).

Istilah “cognitive of theory learning” yaitu suatu bentuk teori belajar yang berpandangan bahwa belajar adalah merupakan proses pemusatan pikiran (kegiatan mental) (Slavin (1994). Teori belajar tersebut  beranggapan bahwa individu yang belajar itu memiliki kemampuan potensial, sehingga tingkah laku yang bersifat kompleks bukan hanya sekedar dari jumlah tingkah laku yang sederhana, maka dalam hal belajar me­nurut aliran ini adalah mementingkan proses belajar dari pada hasil belajar. Belajar tidak hanya sekedar melibatkan stimulus dan respon. Lebih dari itu, belajar juga melibatkan proses ber­pikir yang sangat kompleks. Yang menjadi priori­tas perhatian adalah pada proses bagai­mana suatu ilmu yang baru bisa ber­asimi­lasi dengan ilmu yang sebelumnya di­kuasai oleh masing-masing individu.

 

  1. Teori Humanistik

Menurut teori humanistik, proses belajar harus dimulai dan ditujukan untuk kepentingan memanusiakan manusia itu sendiri. Oleh sebab itu, teori belajar humanistik sifatnya lebih abstrak dan lebih mendekati bidang kajian filsafat, teori kepribadian, dan psikoterapi, dari pada bidang kajian kajian psikologi belajar. Teori humanistik sangat mementingkan si yang dipelajari dari pada proses belajar itu sendiri. Teori belajar ini lebih banyak berbicara tentang konsep-konsep pendidikan untuk membentuk manusia yang dicita-citakan, serta tentang proses belajar dalam bentuknya yang paling ideal. Dengan kata lain, teori ini lebih tertarik pada penertian belajar dalam bentuknya yang paling ideal dari pada pemahaman tentang proses belajar sebagaimana apa adanya, seperti yang selama ini dikaji oleh teori-teori belajar lainnya.

 

Daftar Pustaka

http://belajarpsikologi.com/macam-macam-teori-belajar/

#catatanpribadi/teoribelajar

 

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