desain kurikulum

desain kurikulum

            Pengertian desain kurikulum menurut George A. Beauchamp (1975:101) “Curriculum design may be defined as the substance and organization of goal and culture content so arranged as to reveal potential progression through levels of schooling. (Desain kurikulum bisa digambarkan sebagai unsur pokok, komponen hasil atau sasaran dan kultur yang membudaya).

Menurut Oemar Hamalik (1993) pengertian Desain adalah suatu petunjuk yang memberi dasar, arah, tujuan dan teknik yang ditempuh dalam memulai dan melaksanakan kegiatan. Fred Percival dan Henry Ellington (1984), pada Hamalik mengemukakan bahwa desain kurikulum adalah pengembangan proses perencanaan, validasi, implementasi, dan evaluasi kurikulum.

Dan menurut Nana S. Sukmadinata) desain kurikulum adalah menyangkut pola pengorganisasian unsur-unsur atau komponen kurikulum. Penyusunan desain kurikulum dapat dilihat dari dua dimensi, yaitu dimensi horizontal dan vertikal. Dimensi horizontal berkenaan dengan penyusunan dari lingkup isi kurikulum. Sedangkan dimensi vertikal menyangkut penyusunan sekuens bahan berdasarkan urutan tingkat kesukaran.

Jadi menurut saya dari uraian diatas Desain kurikulum merupakan suatu pengorganisasian tujuan, isi, serta proses belajar yang akan diikuti siswa pada berbagai tahap perkembangan pendidikan. Dalam desain kurikulum akan tergambar unsur-unsur dari kurikulum, hubungan antara satu unsur dengan unsur lainnya, prinsip-­prinsip pengorganisasian, serta hal-hal yang diperlukan dalam pelaksa­naannya

Bentuk-bentuk rancangan kurikulum yang dipakai di persekolahan :

 

  • general statement
  • course of study
  • specific teaching aids
  • descriptions of practice

 

 

 

macam-macam desain antara lain :

 

  • the society-oriented curriculum
  • the child-centered curriculum
  • the knowledge-centered curriculum
  • the eclectic curriculum (Longstreet & Shane)

 

Asumsi-asumsi yang melandasi desain antar lain :

  • tujuan pendidikan
  • sumber tujuan
  • karakteristik peserta didik
  • hakekat proses belajar
  • tipe masyarakat yang dilayani

 

Berikut cara-cara mendesain yang baik sebagai berikut :

 

  1. . Menentukan hal-hal esensial yang berkaitan dengan tujuan pembelajaran dan domain.
  2. Identifikasi domain tujuan pembelajaran
  3. Identifikasi tipe peluang belajar yang mungkin
  4. Menentukan desain kurikulum yang cocok
  5. Menyiapkan desain kurikulum secara tentatif
  6. Identifikasi persyaratan implementasi

 

Bentuk-bentuk desain kurikulum

 

  1. Humanistic design

Model kurikulum ini menekankan pada pengembangan kepribadian peserta didik secara utuh dan seimbang antara perkembangan segi intelektual, afektif, dan psikomotor. Kurikulum ini menekankan pengembangan dan kemampuan dengan memperhatikan minat dan kebutuhan peseta didik dn pembelajarannya ber pusat pada peserta didik. Pembelajaran segi-segi sosial, moral, dan afektif mendapat perhatian utama dalam model kurikulum ini. Model kurikulum ini berkembang dan digunakan dalam pendidikan pribadi.

Model kurikulum humanistik dikembangkan oleh para ahli pendidikan humanistik, didasari oleh konsep-konsep pendidikan pribadi (personalized Education) yaitu John Dewey (progressive education) dan J.J Rousseou (romantic education), konsep ini lebih memberikan tempat utama kepada peserta didik. Mereka percaya bahwa peserta didik mempunyai potensi-potensi, punya kemampuan dan kekuatan untuk berkembang sendiri. Para pendidik Humanis juga berpegang kepada konsep Gestalt, bahwa individu atau anak merupakan satu kesatuan yang menyeluruh. Pendidikan merupakan suatu upaya untuk menciptakan situasi yang permisif, rileks, dan akrab.

 

  1. Subject mattery

Tujuan dari prinsip ini yaitu melatih peserta didik agar mucul-muncul ide-ide bari dari pembahasan yang sudah dijelaskan oleh guru/pembimbing di depan kelas.

Ciri-ciri prinsip ini yaitu lebih memperhatikan isi dan karateristik pelajar atau hasil yang di dapatkan oleh peserta belajar.

Prinsip ini cocok dilakukan di sebuah PT karena isinya lebih logis dan sistematis.

 

  1. The Activity atau Experience Design 

Model desain ini berawal pada abad 18, atas hasil karya dari Rousseau dan Pestalozzi, yang berkembang pesat pada tahun 1920/1930-an pada masa kejayaan pendidikan progresif.

Berikut beberapa ciri utama activity atau experience design. Pertama, struktur kurikulum ditentukan oleh kebutuhan dan minat peserta didik. Dalam mengimplementasikan ciri ini guru hendaknya:

1)        Menemukan minat dan kebutuhan peserta didik,

2)        Membantu para siswa memlih mana yang paling penting dan urgen. Hal ini cukup sulit, sebab harus dapat dibedakan mana minat dan kebutuhan yang sesungguhnya dan mana yang hanya angan-angan. Untuk itu guru harus menguasai benar perkembangan dan karakteristik peserta didik. Karena struktur kurikulum didasarkan atas minat dan kebutuhan peserta didik, maka kurikulum tidak dapat disusun jadi sebelumnya, tetapi disusun bersama oleh guru dengan para siswa. Demikian juga tujuan yang akan dicapai, sumber-sumber belajar, kegiatan belajar dan prosedur evaluasi, dirumuskan bersama siswa. Istilah yang mereka gunakan adalah teacher –student planning.

3).        desain kurikulum tersebut menekankan prosedur pemecahan masalah. Di dalam proses menemukan minatnya perserta didik menghadapi hambatan atau kesulitan-kesulitan tertentu yang harus diatasi. Kesulitan-kesulitan tersebut menunjukkan problema nyata yang dihadapi perserta didik. Dalam menghadapi dan mengatasi masalah-masalah tersebut, peserta didik melakukan proses belajar yang nyata, sungguh-sungguh bermakna, hidup dan relevan dengan kehidupannya. Berbeda dengan subject design yang menekankan isi, activity design lebih mengutamakan proses (keterampilan memecahkan masalah).

 

 

Model hipotesisdan adaptasi kurikulum pada abad 21

 

  1. Model kurikulum yang cocok direlevan untuk abab ke 21 adalah desain intergreated , multikultural dan teknologis/kompetensi
  2. Adaptasi kurikulum yang cocok untuk anak pada abad ke 21 yaitu keunikan anak , keunikan peserta, kebutuhan daerah, keragaman etnis yang multikultural, ketrampilan vokasional, futuristik, dan pendidikan untuk semua.

 

 

 

Daftar Pustaka

https://imanbella.wordpress.com/2012/05/29/makalah-tentang-desain-kurikulum/

#catatan-pribadi/desainkurikulum.

 

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