model model pengembangan kurikulum

A.pendahuluan
Model – model pengembangan kurikulum memegang peranan penting dalam kegiatan pengembangan kurikulum. Sungguh sangat naif bagi para pelaku pendidikan di lapangan terutama guru, kepala sekolah, pengawas bahkan anggota komite sekolah jika tidak memahami dengan baik keberadaan, kegunaan dan urgensi setiap model – model pengembangan kurikulum.

Salah satu fungsi pendidikan dan kurikulum bagi masyarakat adalah menyiapkan peserta didik untuk kehidupan di kemudian hari. Oleh karena itu ada beberapa ciri dasar yang dapat disimpulkan atas penyelenggaraan kurikulum dan pendidikan yaitu sadar akan tujuan, orientasi ke hari depan, dan sadar akan penyesuaian.

Pemahaman tentang kurikulum sendiri merupakan salah satu unsur kompetensi paedagogik yang harus dimiliki seorang guru. Kompetensi paedagogik merupakan kemampuan guru dalam pengelolaan pembelajaran pada peserta didik yang salah satunya kemampuan pengembangan kurikulum.

B. Pengertian Model-Model Pengembangan Kurikulum

Pengembangan kurikulum mempunyai makna yang cukup luas, menurut Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata (200:1) pengembangan kurikulum bisa berarti penyusunan kurikulum yang sama sekali baru (curriculum construction), bisa juga menyempurnakan kurikulum yang telah ada (curriculum improvement). Sedangkan model adalah abstraksi dunia nyata atau representasi pristiwa kompleks atau sistem, dalam bentuk naratif, matematis, grafis serta lambang-lambang lainnya. (Wina Sanjaya 2007:177).

Kurikulum secara umum dapat didefinisikan sebagai rencana (plan) yang dikembangkan untuk dapat tercapainya proses belajar mengajar dengan arahan atau bimbingan sekolah serta anggota stafnya. (H.M. Ahmad, Dkk, 1997: 59)

Pengembangan kurikulum adalah proses yang mengaitkan satu komponen kurikulum lainnya untuk menghasilkan kurikulum yang lebih baik. (H.M. Ahmad, Dkk, 1997: 62)

Menurut Good (1972) dan Travers (1973), model adalah abstraksi dunia nyata atau representasi peristiwa kompleks atau sistem, dalam bentuk naratif, matematis, grafis, serta lambang-lambang lainnya. Model bukanlah realitas, akan tetapi merupakan representasi realitas yang dikembangkan dari keadaan. Dengan demikian, model pada dasarnya berkaitan dengan rancangan yang dapat digunakan untuk menerjemahkan sesuatu sarana untuk mempermudah berkomunikasi, atau sebagai petunjuk yang bersifat perspektif untuk mengambil keputusan, atau sebagai petunjuk perencanaan untuk kegiatan pengelolaan.

Model atau konstruksi merupakan ulasan teoritis tentang suatu konsepsi dasar (Zainal Abidin (2012: 137). Dalam pengembangan kurikulum, model dapat merupakan ulasan teoritis tentang suatu proses kurikulum secara menyeluruh atau dapat pula merupakan ulasan tentang salah satu bagian kurikulum. Sedangkan menurut (Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia) model adalah pola, contoh, acuan, ragam dari sesuatu yang akan dihasilkan. Dikaitkan dengan model pengembangan kurikulum berarti merupakan suatu pola, contoh dari suatu bentuk kurikulum yang akan menjadi acuan pelaksanaan pendidikan/pembelajaran.

Model pengembangan kurikulum adalah model yang digunakan untuk mengembangkan suatu kurikulum, dimana pengembangan kurikulum dibutuhkan untuk memperbaiki atau menyempurnakan kurikulum yang dibuat untuk dikembangkan sendiri baik dari pemerintah pusat, pemerintah daerah atau sekolah.

Nadler (1988) menjelaskan bahwa model yang baik adalah model yang dapat menolong si pengguna untuk mengerti dan memahami suatu proses secara mendasar dan menyeluruh. Selanjutnya ia menjelaskan manfaat model adalah model dapat menjelaskan beberapa aspek perilaku dan interaksi manusia, model dapat mengintegrasikan seluruh pengetahuan hasil observasi dan penelitian, model dapat menyederhanakan suatu proses yang bersifat kompleks, dan model dapat digunakan sebagai pedoman untuk melakukan kegiatan.

Jadi model pengembangan kurikulum merupakan suatu alternatif prosedur dalam rangka mendesain (designing), menerapkan (impelementation), dan mengevaluasi (evaliatoon) suatu kurikulum. Oleh karena itu, model pengembangan kurikulum harus dapat menggambarkan suatu proses sistem perencanaan pembelajaran yang dapat memenuhi berbagai kebutuhan dan standar keberhasilan dalam pendidikan.

C. Jenis Model-Model Pengembangan Kurikulum

Kurikulum sebagai perangkat yang digunakan untuk mengembangkan kemampuan anak secara paripurna, khususnya kemampuan memecahkan permasalahan yang dihadapi sehari-hari perlu dipikirkan pengalaman apa yang diperlukan oleh siswa untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut. Dengan mempertimbangkan produk yang hendak dicapai, maka dimensi pengembangannya harus mengikuti pola the how bukan the what, yaitu bagaimana muatan yang disusun dalam rancangan pendidikan itu mampu merangkum pengalaman siswa untuk mencapai otonomi intelektuanya, sehingga memberikan kemampuan untuk berpikir secara mandiri dalam memecahkan persoalan baru yang belum pernah diperoleh di sekolah.
PENUTUP

A. Kesimpulan

Peranan kurikulum dalam pembelajaran meliputi peranan konservatif, peranan kritis atau evaluatif, serta peranan kreatif. Peranan konservatif yaitu peranan pewarisan budaya dari generasi tua ke generasi yang lebih muda. Peranan kritis atau evaluatif yaitu memilah kebudayaan dan mempertahankan yang baik, serta mempertimbangkan kembali kebudayaan yang sudah dirasa tidak sesuai dengan perkembangan zaman. Sedangkan peranan kreatif berkenaan dengan kreasi manusia menciptakan sesuatu secara dinamis yang terus berkembang selama peradaban dan pendidikan masih ada.

Model pengembangan kurikulum yang dapat digunakan meliputi model administrasi, model grass root, model demonstrasi, model Beauchamp, model hubungan Interpersonal dari Roger, model Tyler, serta model Inverted dari Taba. Model administrasi rencananya berasal dari pejabat, model grass root serta demonstrasi memiliki kemiripan dengan rencana yang berasal dari pendidik, model Beauchamp menelaah erdasarkan langkah-langkah tertentu, model hubungan Interpersonal dari Roger menitikberatkan pada kegiatan kelompok campuran, model Tyler berdasar pada empat pertanyaan pendidikan, dan model Inverted dari Taba menekankan pada kesederhanaan prosedur.

Daftar Pustaka
http://falahterhottss.blogspot.co.id/2014/03/normal-0-false-false-false-in-x-none-x.html
#catatanpribadi/modelmodelpengembangankurikulum

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