Materi Pembelajaran

Materi Pembelajaran
Hilmawan.blogs.uny.ac.id

A. Materi pembelajaran
Komponen lain yang harus diperhatikan dalam menyusun silabus adalah penentuan materi pembelajaran. Materi pokok harus disusun sedemikian rupa agar dapat menunjang tercapainya kompetensi. Materi pokok adalah pokok-pokok materi pembelajaran yang harus dipelajari siswa sebagai sarana pencapaian kompetensi dan yang akan dinilai dengan menggunakan instrument penilaian yang disusun berdasarkan indikator pencapaian belajar. Karena standar materi pokok telah ditetapkan secara nasional, maka materi pokok tinggal disalin dari buku standar kompetensi mata pelajaran. Sementara tugas para pengembang silabus adalah memberikan jabaran atau materi pokok tersebut ke dalam uraian materi pokok atau biasa disebut materi pembelajaran. Materi pembelajaran (instructional materials) adalah pengetahuan, ketsserampilan, dan sikap yang harus diajarkan oleh guru dan dipelajari peserta didik. Secara khusus, jenis-jenis materi pembelajaran terdiri dari fakta, konsep, prinsip, prosedur, dan sikap atau nilai (Abdul Gafur, 2004:2).

Selanjutnya, materi pembelajaran atau pokok-pokok materi perlu dirinci atau diuraikan kemudian diurutkan. Satu hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merinci atau menguraikan materi pembelajaran adalah menentukan jenis materi pembelajaran. Isi mata ajar memberikan informasi yang diperlukan dalam pokok bahasan. Pada gilirannya, informasi menumbuhkan pengetahuan yang merupakan tata hubungan antara rincian fakta.

B. Prinsip-prinsip yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penyusunan materi Pembelajaran/bahan ajar tersebut terbagi tiga, yaitu;
(1) prinsip relevansi;
(2) prinsip konsistensi,
(3) prinsip kecukupan

Kriteria pokok pemilihan materi pembelajaran adalah relevan dengan standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar. Materi yang dipilih untuk diajarkan oleh guru dan harus dipelajari peserta didik hendaknya materi yang benar-benar menunjang tercapainya standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar. Materi pembelajaran aspek kognitif secara terperinci dapat dibagi menjadi empat jenis, yaitu: fakta, konsep, prinsip, dan prosedur Reigeluth, ( dalam Abdul Gafur, 2004:4).

C. Jenis-jenis Materi Pembelajaran
1. Pengetahuan, meliputi:
a. Fakta adalah kebenaran yang dapat diterima oleh nalar dan sesuai dengan kenyataan yang dapat dikenali dengan panca indera. Fakta diperoleh dengan cara:
– Memperoleh sendiri dari sumber aslinya. Fakta didefinisikan dengan cara menggambarkan atau menafsirkan dari sumber yang asli
b. Fakta yang diperoleh dari orang yang mengidentifikasi dengan jalan menyusunnya dalam bentuk interaksi reasoning (Penalaran Abstrak)
Konsep adalah hasil penyimpulan tentang suatu hal berdasarkan atas adanya ciri-ciri yang sama pada hal tertentu. Konsep ada kalanya berkaitan dengan sesuatu obyek, sesuatu peristiwa atau berkaitan dengan manusia. Strategi pencapaian konsep: – Strategi pemilihan – Strategi penerimaan
Prinsip adalah suatu pernyataan yang menjelaskan tentang hubungan antara dua konsep atau lebih istilah prinsip kadang-kadang disebut juga dengan aturan atau generalisasi.
2. Prosedur, yaitu materi pembelajaran yang berupa langkah-langkah melakukan suatu kegiatan secara berurut aslinya
3. Keterampilan adalah melakukan suatu jenis kegiatan tertentu. Keterampilan ada 3 macam yaitu :
1) Rangkaian respon atau reaksi, yaitu merupakan rangkaian gerakan-gerakan yang meliputi urutan tertentu untuk menyelesaikan suatu pekerjaan tertentu
2) Koordinasi gerakan, yaitu seseorang dituntut untuk memadukan sejumlah anggota badan untuk melakaukan suatu pekerjaan
3) Pola-pola respon atau reaksi, yaitu berkaitan dengan keterampilan mengorganisasi seluruh keterampilan yang dimiliki dalam mereaksi rangsangan, sehingga dapat dipertunjukan suatu respon baru dalam mereaksi rangsangan
4) Sikap atau nilai yaitu berkaitan dengan sikap atau interest (minat) siswa mengikuti materi pembelajaran yang disajikan guru, nilai-nilai berupa apresiasi (penghargaan ) terhadap sesuatu dan penyesuaian perasaaan sosial.
Materi pembelajaran dapat dikelompokkan menjadi beberapa bagian, yaitu:
a. Materi pembelajaran utama, yaitu materi pembelajaran pokok yang menjadi rujukan wajib (compulsory learning resources) dalam suatu rangkaian kegiatan pembelajaran.
b. Materi pembelajaran penunjang (suplementary reading materials) yaitu materi sekunder atau tersier yang keberadaannya sebagai pelengkap dan pengayaan.
Sifat Materi Pembelajaran
a) Materi pembelajaran bersifat umum yang berisi hal-hal yang harus dimiliki oleh seluruh siswa
b) Materi pembelajaran bersifat khusus yaitu yang diperlukan untuk kepentingan tertentu
c) Materi pembelajaran bersifat deskriptif yang berisi fakta-fakta dan prinsip-prinsip
d) Materi pembelajaran yang bersifat normatif yang berkaitan dengan norma-norma, peraturan, moral dan estetika.

Daftar Pustaka

http://lifeiseducation09.blogspot.co.id/2013/03/materi-pembelajaran.html
*catatanperibadi/pengembangankurikulum2015

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