makna implementasi kurikulum

Makna Implementasi Kurikulum
Hilmawan.blogs.uny.ac.id

A. Pengertian Implementasi
Impelentasi adalah suatu tindakan atau pelaksanaan dari sebuah rencana yang sudah disusun secara matang dan terperinci. Implementasi biasanya dilakukan setelah perencanaaan sudah dianggap fix. berikat ane akan sedikit info tentang pengertian implentasi menurut para ahli. semoga info tentang pengertian implementasi menurut para ahli bisa bermanfaat.
Secara sederhana implementasi bisa diartikan pelaksanaan atau penerapan. Majone dan Wildavsky (dalam Nurdin dan Usman, 2002), mengemukakan implementasi sebagai evaluasi. Browne dan Wildavsky (dalam Nurdin dan Usman, 2004:70) mengemukakan bahwa ”implementasi adalah perluasan aktivitas yang saling menyesuaikan”. Pengertian implementasi sebagai aktivitas yang saling menyesuaikan juga dikemukakan oleh Mclaughin (dalam Nurdin dan Usman, 2004). Adapun Schubert (dalam Nurdin dan Usman, 2002:70) mengemukakan bahwa ”implementasi adalah sistem rekayasa.”
Pengertian-pengertian di atas memperlihatkan bahwa kata implementasi bermuara pada aktivitas, adanya aksi, tindakan, atau mekanisme suatu sistem. Ungkapan mekanisme mengandung arti bahwa implementasi bukan sekadar aktivitas, tetapi suatu kegiatan yang terencana dan dilakukan secara sungguh-sungguh berdasarkan acuan norma tertentu untuk mencapai tujuan kegiatan. Oleh karena itu, implementasi tidak berdiri sendiri tetapi dipengaruhi oleh obyek berikutnya yaitu kurikulum.
Dalam kenyataannya, implementasi kurikulum menurut Fullan merupakan proses untuk melaksanakan ide, program atau seperangkat aktivitas baru dengan harapan orang lain dapat menerima dan melakukan perubahan.
Dalam konteks implementasi kurikulum pendekatan-pendekatan yang telah dikemukakan di atas memberikan tekanan pada proses. Esensinya implementasi adalah suatu proses, suatu aktivitas yang digunakan untuk mentransfer ide/gagasan, program atau harapan-harapan yang dituangkan dalam bentuk kurikulum desain (tertulis) agar dilaksanakan sesuai dengan desain tersebut. Masing-masing pendekatan itu mencerminkan tingkat pelaksanaan yang berbeda.
Dalam kaitannya dengan pendekatan yang dimaksud, Nurdin dan Usman (2004) menjelaskan bahwa pendekatan pertama, menggambarkan implementasi itu dilakukan sebelum penyebaran (desiminasi) kurikulum desain. Kata proses dalam pendekatan ini adalah aktivitas yang berkaitan dengan penjelasan tujuan program, mendeskripsikan sumber-sumber baru dan mendemosntrasikan metode pengajaran yang diugunakan.
Pendekatan kedua, menurut Nurdin dan Usman (2002) menekankan pada fase penyempurnaan. Kata proses dalam pendekatan ini lebih menekankan pada interaksi antara pengembang dan guru (praktisi pendidikan). Pengembang melakukan pemeriksaan pada program baru yang direncanakan, sumber-sumber baru, dan memasukan isi/materi baru ke program yang sudah ada berdasarkan hasil uji coba di lapangan dan pengalaman-pengalaman guru. Interaksi antara pengembang dan guru terjadi dalam rangka penyempurnaan program, pengembang mengadakan lokakarya atau diskusi-diskusi dengan guru-guru untuk memperoleh masukan. Implementasi dianggap selesai manakala proses penyempurnaan program baru dipandang sudah lengkap.
Sedangkan pendekatan ketiga, Nurdin dan Usman (2002) memandang implementasi sebagai bagian dari program kurikulum. Proses implementasi dilakukan dengan mengikuti perkembangan dan megadopsi program-program yang sudah direncanakan dan sudah diorganisasikan dalam bentuk kurikulum desain (dokumentasi).
Implementasi dalam Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia diartikan sebagai pelaksanaan atau penerapan. Artinya yang dilaksanakan dan diterapkan adalah kurikulum yang telah dirancang/didesain untuk kemudian dijalankan sepenuhnya. Kalau diibaratkan dengan sebuah rancangan bangunan yang dibuat oleh seorangInsinyur bangunan tentang rancangan sebuah rumah pada kertas kalkirnya maka implementasi yang dilakukan oleh para tukang adalah rancangan yang telah dibuattadi dan sangat tidak mungkin atau mustahil akan melenceng atau tidak sesuai denganrancangan, apabila yang dilakukan oleh para tukang tidak sama dengan hasil rancangan akan terjadi masalah besar dengan bangunan yang telah di buat karenarancangan adalah sebuah proses yang panjang, rumit, sulit dan telah sempurna darisisi perancang dan rancangan itu. Maka implementasi kurikulum juga dituntut untuk melaksanakan sepenuhnya apa yang telah direncanakan dalam kurikulumnya untuk dijalankan dengan segenap hati dan keinginan kuat, permasalahan besar akan terjadiapabila yang dilaksanakan bertolak belakang atau menyimpang dari yang telahdirancang maka terjadilah kesia-sian antara rancangan dengan implementasi. Rancangan kurikulum dan impelemntasi kurikulum adalah sebuah sistem danmembentuk sebuah garis lurus dalam hubungannya (konsep linearitas) dalam artiimpementasi mencerminkan rancangan, maka sangat penting sekali pemahaman guruserta aktor lapangan lain yang terlibat dalam proses belajar mengajar sebagai inti kurikulum untuk memahami perancangan kurikulum dengan baik dan benar.

B. Kesimpulan

Implementasi kurikulum adalah suatu proses penerapan ide, konsep, dan kebijakan kurikulum (kurikulum potensial) suatu aktifitas pembelajaran sehingga peserta didik menguasai seperangkat kompetensi tertentu sebagai hasil interaksi dengan lingkungan.

Daftar Pustaka
http://rohimzoom.blogspot.co.id/2013/11/implementasi-kurikulum.html
#catatanPeribadi/Pengembangankurikulum

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